What happens physically when you shout and scream?
This varies from one person to the next, but for most of us there is an increase in heart rate, constriction of blood vessels, shift in brain chemistry and, of course, vocal strain.There is usually a resulting hoarseness caused by swelling or even burst blood vessels on the vocal cords. It can take a long time to heal, depending on how extensive the damage is and on how strong the voice was in the first place.
We might notice a tendancy to force the vocal cords together too strongly, and then to have air pushing up against them from below. We might raise the pitch and sound much higher than usual. We might over articulate the consonants and contort the face, both of which can stress the voice.
Notice what you do. Then, try not to do it and see if you can calm your anger. For example, if you breathe quickly and spit your words, breathe slowly and articulate very gently. If you go to a higher pitch, try to speak lower. If you speak more rapidly, speak slower.